end of sigmoid colon
A colonoscopy is a procedure which lets the physician view
your entire colon in order to look for early signs of  cancer in
the colon and rectum. It is also used to diagnose the causes of  
unexplained changes in bowel habits.  Colonoscopy enables
the physician to see inflamed tissue, abnormal growths , ulcers,
and bleeding.
What Is a Colonoscopy? For the procedure, you will lie on your left side on an examining table.  You will be sedated to keep you comfortable during the procedure. The physicain will insert a long, flexible, lighted tube into your rectum and slowly guide it into your colon.  The colonoscope transmits an image of the inside of the large intestine, enabling the physician to carefully examine the lining of the colon. This instrument  also allows inflation of the colon with air, which  improves visualization for the physician. If anything abnormal is seen in your colon, like a polyp or inflamed tissue, the physician can remove all or part of it using tiny instruments passed through the colonoscope. The tissue (biopsy) is then sent to a lab for testing.  

Colonoscopy takes 20 to 30 minutes.  After the procedure, you will remain in recovery until the sedation wears off, typically about 30 minutes.  You must arrive 1 hour prior to your procedure,.  Therefore, plan for a total of 2 hours.
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